Volume 3, Issue 1 (1-2021)                   kurmanj 2021, 3(1): 12-22 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alizadeh Tari Z, Roslin V P. Language Learning Styles and Writing Strategies as Predictors of Writing Anxiety among Iranian EFL Learners. kurmanj. 2021; 3 (1) :12-22
URL: http://kurmanj.srpub.org/article-2-78-en.html
Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran.
Abstract:   (417 Views)
The main aim of this study was to see if a significant relationship existed among Iranian EFL learners’ Learning Styles, Writing Strategies and Writing Anxiety. To this effect, 183 EFL learners studying English in three language institutes from the upper intermediate and advanced proficiency levels were selected based on convenient nonrandom sampling procedure. They completed the Kolb Learning Style (KLS), the Inventory of Learning Strategies for writing (ILS) and the Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) self-report questionnaires. However, after the initial screening, 21 cases were discarded as their answers were incomplete, leaving 162 participants in the final sample. The relationship among EFL learners learning styles, writing strategies and writing anxiety were analyzed using the Spearman rank order coefficient of correlation. Since, the results indicated statistically significant relationships among them, multiple regression analyses were run to see if significant predictors of EFL learners’ writing anxiety could be identified. Interestingly, the analyses showed that pragmatist learning style made the strongest statistically significant unique contribution to predict writing anxiety while activist learning style failed to make such a significant contribution. To clarify, the negative relationship suggests that the more pragmatic the preferred learning style is, the lower the writing anxiety. Furthermore, only memory writing strategy made a statistically significant unique contribution to predicting writing anxiety while the other five writing strategies did not. To explain further, their positive relationship implies that learners who apply memory strategies more, face higher levels of writing anxiety. Thus, this study identified learners’ pragmatist learning style and memory writing strategy as significant predictors of writing anxiety in the EFL context. As a result, not only does this study provide statistical evidence of the relationship among these variables but it also stresses the importance of EFL learners’ language learning styles and writing strategies to their writing anxiety.
Full-Text [PDF 570 kb]   (104 Downloads)    
Humanities: Research | Subject: language teaching
Received: 2020/12/15 | Accepted: 2021/01/13 | Published: 2021/01/30

1. Flower L, Hayers JR. The cognitive of discovery defining a rhetorical problem. Coll Compos Comm. 1980; 31(1): 21-32. [DOI:10.2307/356630]
2. De Smet MJR, Brand-Gruwel S, Leijten M, Kirschner PA. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process. Comput Educ. 2014; 78: 352-366. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.06.010]
3. MacIntyre PD, Gardner RC. Anxiety and second-language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Lang Learn. 1989; 39(2): 251-278. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00423.x]
4. MacIntyre PD, Gardner RC. Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Lang Learn. 1991; 41(1): 85-117. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00677.x]
5. Kurt G, Atay D. The effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of prospective Turkish teachers of EFL. J Theor Pract Educ. 2007; 3(1): 12-23.
6. Latif MA. The factors accounting for the Egyptian EFL university students' negative writing affect. Essex Graduat Stud Paper Lang Linguist. 2007; 9: 57-82.
7. Yavuz D, Genc AB. Flexibility of setting up a writing unit at YADIM. Unpublished action research study. Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey. 1998.
8. Trivelli-Bowen B, Moore JJ, Niemeyer SR, Holmes K. Ways to use technology to motivate students' writing. Int J Art Commerce. 2014; 3(7): 1-11.
9. Alnufaie M, Grenfell M. EFL writing apprehension: The macro or the micro? J Art Hum. 2013; 2(3): 79-89.
10. Leki I. Material, educational and ideological challenges of teaching EFL writing at the turn of the century. Int J Eng Stud. 2001; 1(2): 197-209.
11. Richards JC, Rodgers TS. Approaches and methods in language teaching. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 2001. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511667305]
12. Manchón RM. Writing to learn the language: Issues in theory and research. In Manchón RM. (Ed.). Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 2011; 61-84. [DOI:10.1075/lllt.31]
13. Goldberg I, Baker GL. The individualized learning system. Educ Leader. 1970; 27(8): 775-780.
14. Skehan P. Individual differences in second language learning. London: Edward Arnold. 1989.
15. Dörnyei Z. The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2005.
16. Ellis R. Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1985.
17. Skehan P. Theorising and updating aptitude. In Robinson P. (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 2002; 69-95. [DOI:10.1075/lllt.2.06ske]
18. Kubat U. Identifying the individual differences among students during learning and teaching process by science teachers. Int J Res Educ Sci. 2018; 4(1): 30-38. [DOI:10.21890/ijres.369746]
19. Gardner RC. Social psychology and second language learning. The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold. 1985.
20. Oxford R. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 1990.
21. Rigney J. Learning strategies: A theoretical perspective. In O'Neil Jr HF. (Ed.), Learning strategies. New York: Academic Press. 1978.
22. Nyikos M, Oxford R. A factor analytic study of language-learning strategy use: Interpretations from information-processing and social psychology. Mod Lang J. 1993; 77: 11-22. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1993.tb01940.x]
23. Lee C. An overview of language learning strategies. ARECLS. 2010; 7: 132-152.
24. Oxford RL, Ehrman ME, Lavine RZ. Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In Magnan SS. (ed.), Challenges in the 1990s for college foreign language programs. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 1991; 1-25.
25. Zhang LF, Sternberg RJ. Are learning approaches and thinking styles related? A study in two Chinese populations. J Psychol. 2000; 134: 469-489. [DOI:10.1080/00223980009598230] [PMID]
26. Dunn RS. Understanding the Dunn and Dunn learning styles model and the need for individual diagnosis and prescription. J Read Write Learn Disabil Int. 1990; 6: 223-247. [DOI:10.1080/0748763900060303]
27. Spielberger CD. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety (From Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. 1983.
28. Horwitz EK. Language anxiety and achievement. Ann Rev Appl Linguist. 2001; 2(I): 112-126. [DOI:10.1017/S0267190501000071]
29. Macintyre PD, Gardner RC. The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Lang Learn. 1994; 44: 283-305. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01103.x]
30. Ohata K. Potential sources of anxiety for Japanese learners of English: Preliminary case of interviews with five Japanese college students in the US. TESL-EJ, 2005; 9(3): 2-23.
31. Fariadian E, Azizifar A, Gowhary H. Gender contribution in anxiety in speaking EFL among Iranian learners. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci. 2014; 8(11): 2095-2099.
32. Mahmoodzadeh M. Investigating foreign language speaking anxiety within the EFL learner's interlanguage system: The case of Iranian learners. J Lang Teach Res. 2012; 3(3): 466-476. [DOI:10.4304/jltr.3.3.466-476]
33. Pashler H, McDaniel M, Rohrer D, Bjork R. Learning styles: concepts and evidence. Psychol Sci Publ Interest, 2009; 9(3): 105-119. [DOI:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x] [PMID]
34. Vermunt JD. Metacognitive, cognitive and affective aspects of learning styles and strategies: A phenomenographic analysis. High Educ. 1996; 31: 25-50. [DOI:10.1007/BF00129106]
35. Kolb D. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1984.
36. Jantan R, Razali M. Psikologi Pendidikan Pendekatan Kontemporari. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw Hill Education. 2002.
37. Honey P, Mumford A. The manual of learning styles, Maidenhead. Berkshire: Peter Honey. 1982.
38. Jones BF, Palincsar AS, Ogle DS, Carr EG. Strategic teaching and learning: Cognitive instruction in the content areas. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1987.
39. Torrance M, Thomas GV, Robinson EJ. Individual differences in undergraduate essay-writing strategies: A longitudinal study. High Educ. 2000; 39: 181-200. [DOI:10.1023/A:1003990432398]
40. Penuelas ABC. The writing strategies of American universty students: Focusing on memory, compensation, social, and affective strategies. Estud Ling Ing Apl. 2012; 77-113.
41. Oxford R. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 1990.
42. Daly JA, Miller M. The empirical development of an instrument to measure writing apprehension. Res Teach Eng. 1975; 9: 242-249. [DOI:10.1037/t73755-000]
43. Hassan BA. The relationship of writing apprehension and self-esteem to the writing quantity and quality of EFL university students. Mansoura Facul Educ J. 2001; http://eric.Ed.Gov/PDFS/ED459671
44. Pae T-I. Skill-based L2 anxieties revisited: Their intra-relations and the inter-relations with general foreign language anxiety. Appl. Ling. 2013; 34: 232-252. [DOI:10.1093/applin/ams041]
45. Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd Ed.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2003.
46. Bromley P. Active learning strategies for diverse learning styles: Simulations are only one method. PS: Polit Sci Polit. 2013; 46(4): 818-822. [DOI:10.1017/S1049096513001145]
47. Wong LLC, Nunan D. The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners. Syst. 2011; 39(2): 144-163. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2011.05.004]
48. Carson JG, Longhini A. Focusing on learning styles and strategies: A diary study in an immersion setting. Lang Learn. 2002; 52(2): 401-438. [DOI:10.1111/0023-8333.00188]
49. Oxford RL, Ehrman ME, Lavine RZ. Style wars: Teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom. In Magnan SS. (ed.), Challenges in the 1990s for college foreign language programs. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 1991; 1-25.
50. Al Asmari A. Investigation of writing strategies, writing apprehension, and writing achievement among Saudi EFL-major students. Int Educ Stud. 2013; 6(11): 130-143. [DOI:10.5539/ies.v6n11p130]
51. Honey P, Mumford A. The manual of learning styles. Maidenhead. Berkshire: Peter Honey. 1982.
52. Dahmardeh M. Communicative Textbooks: Linguistic online. 2010; 40: 4-9.
53. Fredriksson U, Hoskins B. The development of learning to learn in a European context. Curric J. 2007; 18(2): 127 - 134. [DOI:10.1080/09585170701445921]
54. Tekkol İA, Demirel M. An investigation of self-directed learning skills of undergraduate students. Front Psychol. 2018; 9. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02324] [PMID] [PMCID]
55. Penuelas ABC. The writing strategies of American universty students: Focusing on memory, compensation, social, and affective strategies. Estud Ling Ing Apl. 2012; 77-113.
56. Noormohammadi R. On the relationship between language learning strategies and foreign language anxiety. J Pan Pac Assoc Apl Ling. 2009; 13(1): 39-52.
57. Sediqifar Z, Khaleqizadeh S. Memory, cognitive and compensation strategies: The relationship between application of strategies and non-Iranian Persian learners' success in writing skill. Lang Relat Res. 2018; 9(1): 43.
58. Gözüküçük M. Ses temelli cümle yöntemi ve yapılandırmacılık. In Kırmızı FS, Ünal E. (Eds.), Yazma öğretimi. Ankara, Turkey: Anı Yayıncılık. 2016; 1-33.
59. Kavcar C, Oğuzkan F, Hasırcı S. Türkçe öğretimi, Türkçe ve sınıf öğretmenleri için (9. bs.). Ankara, Turkey: Anı Yayıncılık. 2016.
60. Zimmerman BJ, Kitsantas A. A writer's discipline: The development of self-regulatory skill. In Boscolo P, Hidi S. (Eds.), Writing and motivation. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. 2007; 51-69. [DOI:10.1108/S1572-6304(2006)0000019006]
61. Brown K, Hood S. Writing matters: writing skills and strategies for students of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989.
62. Flavell JH. Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In Resnick L. (Ed.), The nature of intelligence. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1976; 17-35.
63. Flower LA, Hayes JR. The representation of meaning in writing. Writ Comm. 1984; 1: 120-160. [DOI:10.1177/0741088384001001006]
64. Flower L. Problem-solving strategies for writing in college and community (1st Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1998.
65. Güleryüz H. Türkçe programlandırılmış ilkokuma ve yazma öğretimi (5. bs.). Ankara: Pegema Yayıncılık. 2001.
66. Haven K. Writing workouts to develop common core writing skills: Step-by-step exercises, activities, and tips for student success, grades 2-6 (2nd Ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. 2015.
67. Sundem G. Improving student writing skills (1st Ed.). Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education. 2007.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.